Neisseria spp. are a transient low abundance member of the human microbiome. This species contains the very well described pathogens, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis. Recent advances in molecular typing have revealed that this genus is more diverse than previously thought and that commensal species may have important roles in inhibiting the growth the pathogens. This short review summates these new findings and examines the evidence that the relatively under-reported Neisseria commensal species maybe beneficial to human health.