Ten species of lupins (Lupinus spp.) were tested for resistance to cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) in field experiments where inoculation was by naturally-occurring aphid vectors, and in the glasshouse by sap or graft-inoculatiom L. albus and six species of 'rough-seeded' lupins did not become infected with CMV either under intense inoculum pressure in the field or when graft-inoculated. Two L. hispanicus, 17 L. luteus and four L. mutabilis genotypes became infected with CMV in the field, but no infection was detected in L. hispanicus P26858 or seven L. luteus genotypes. CMV was detected at seed transmission rates of 0.2-16% in seedlings of infected L. luteus, differences in levels of seed transmission between genotypes being significant and relatively stable from year to year. Graft-inoculation of CMV to plants of six genotypes of L. luteus in which no infection was found in the field induced a systemic necrotic reaction suggesting that the resistance they carry is due to hypersensitivity. In L. hispanicus accessions P26849, P26853 and P26858, CMV sub-group II isolate SN caused necrotic spots in inoculated leaves without systemic movement, while sub-group I isolate SL infected them systemically without necrosis. Another sub-group I and two other sub-group II isolates behaved like SL in P26849 and P26853 but infected only inoculated leaves of P26858. This suggests that two strain specific hypersensitive resistance specificities are operating against CMV in L. hispanicus. When plants of L. luteus genotypes that gave hypersensitive reactions on graft-inoculation were inoculated with infective sap containing two sub-group I and seven sub-group II isolates, they all responded like L. hispanicus P26858. A strain group concept is proposed for CMV in lupins based on the two hypersensitive specificities found: strain group 1 represented by isolate SN which induces hypersensitivity with both specificities, strain group 2 represented by the three isolates which induced hypersensitivity only with the specificity present in L. luteus and L. hispanicus P26858, strain group 3 by as yet hypothetical isolates that induce hypersensitivity only in presence of the specificity in L. hispanicus P26849 and P26853 that responded just to isolate SN, and strain group 4 by isolate SL which overcomes both specificities. When F2 progeny plants from crosses between hypersensitive and susceptible L. luteus parents were inoculated with isolate SN, the resistance segregated with a 3:1 ratio (hypersensitive:susceptible), suggesting that a single dominant hypersensitivity gene, Ncm-1, is responsible. As gene Ncm-1 had broad specificity and was not overcome by any of the five CMV isolates from lupins tested, it is valuable for use in breeding CMV resistant L. luteus cultivars.
|Number of pages||20|
|Journal||Annals of Applied Biology|
|Publication status||Published - Feb 1997|