Natural products show diverse mechanisms of action against Clostridium difficile

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Aims: To investigate the mechanisms of action of natural products with bactericidal (cinnamon root powder, peppermint oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, menthol and zingerone) or bacteriostatic (fresh garlic bulb extract, garlic clove powder, Leptospermum honey and allicin) activity against two Clostridium difficile strains. Methods and Results: Bactericidal products significantly reduced intracellular ATP after 1 h (P ≤ 0·01), quantified using the BacTiter-Glo reagent, and damaged the cell membrane, shown by the leakage of both 260-nm-absorbing materials and protein, and the uptake of propidium iodide. Bacteriolysis was not observed, determined by measuring optical density of treated cell suspensions at 620-nm. The effect of three bacteriostatic products on protein synthesis was quantified using an Escherichia coli S30 extract system, with Leptospermum honey (16% w/v) showing significant inhibition (P < 0·01). Lastly, no products showed elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations against antimicrobial-resistant C. difficile, determined by broth microdilution. Conclusions: Cytoplasmic membrane damage was identified as a mechanism of action that may contribute to the activity of several natural products against C. difficile. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study describes the possible mechanisms of action of natural products against C. difficile, yet the efficacy in vivo to be determined.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)468-479
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Applied Microbiology
Volume126
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019

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Clostridium difficile
Biological Products
Leptospermum
Garlic
Honey
Powders
Bacteriolysis
Cell Membrane
Cinnamomum zeylanicum
Menthol
Syzygium
Propidium
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Suspensions
Proteins
Cell Count
Adenosine Triphosphate
Escherichia coli

Cite this

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title = "Natural products show diverse mechanisms of action against Clostridium difficile",
abstract = "Aims: To investigate the mechanisms of action of natural products with bactericidal (cinnamon root powder, peppermint oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, menthol and zingerone) or bacteriostatic (fresh garlic bulb extract, garlic clove powder, Leptospermum honey and allicin) activity against two Clostridium difficile strains. Methods and Results: Bactericidal products significantly reduced intracellular ATP after 1 h (P ≤ 0·01), quantified using the BacTiter-Glo reagent, and damaged the cell membrane, shown by the leakage of both 260-nm-absorbing materials and protein, and the uptake of propidium iodide. Bacteriolysis was not observed, determined by measuring optical density of treated cell suspensions at 620-nm. The effect of three bacteriostatic products on protein synthesis was quantified using an Escherichia coli S30 extract system, with Leptospermum honey (16{\%} w/v) showing significant inhibition (P < 0·01). Lastly, no products showed elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations against antimicrobial-resistant C. difficile, determined by broth microdilution. Conclusions: Cytoplasmic membrane damage was identified as a mechanism of action that may contribute to the activity of several natural products against C. difficile. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study describes the possible mechanisms of action of natural products against C. difficile, yet the efficacy in vivo to be determined.",
keywords = "ATP leakage, membranes, permeability, plant extracts, time-kill",
author = "N. Roshan and Riley, {T. V.} and Knight, {D. R.} and Steer, {J. H.} and Hammer, {K. A.}",
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Natural products show diverse mechanisms of action against Clostridium difficile. / Roshan, N.; Riley, T. V.; Knight, D. R.; Steer, J. H.; Hammer, K. A.

In: Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 126, No. 2, 01.02.2019, p. 468-479.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Roshan, N.

AU - Riley, T. V.

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AU - Steer, J. H.

AU - Hammer, K. A.

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