Na+ and/or Cl toxicities determine salt sensitivity in soybean (Glycine max (L.) merr.), mungbean (vigna radiata (L.) r. wilczek), cowpea (vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.), and common bean (phaseolus vulgaris L.)

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Abstract

Grain legumes are important crops, but they are salt sensitive. This research dissected the responses of four (sub)tropical grain legumes to ionic components (Na+ and/or Cl) of salt stress. Soybean, mungbean, cowpea, and common bean were subjected to NaCl, Na+ salts (without Cl), Cl salts (without Na+), and a “high cation” negative control for 57 days. Growth, leaf gas exchange, and tissue ion concentrations were assessed at different growing stages. For soybean, NaCl and Na+ salts impaired seed dry mass (30% of control), more so than Cl salts (60% of control). All treatments impaired mungbean growth, with NaCl and Cl salt treatments affecting seed dry mass the most (2% of control). For cowpea, NaCl had the greatest adverse impact on seed dry mass (20% of control), while Na+ salts and Cl salts had similar intermediate effects (~45% of control). For common bean, NaCl had the greatest adverse effect on seed dry mass (4% of control), while Na+ salts and Cl salts impaired seed dry mass to a lesser extent (~45% of control). NaCl and Na+ salts (without Cl) affected the photosynthesis (Pn) of soybean more than Cl salts (without Na+) (50% of control), while the reverse was true for mungbean. Na+ salts (without Cl), Cl salts (without Na+), and NaCl had similar adverse effects on Pn of cowpea and common bean (~70% of control). In conclusion, salt sensitivity is predominantly determined by Na+ toxicity in soybean, Cl toxicity in mungbean, and both Na+ and Cl toxicity in cowpea and common bean.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1909
Pages (from-to)1-28
Number of pages28
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume22
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Feb 2021

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