Myocardial interstitial fibrosis (MIF) is a histological hallmark of several cardiac diseases that alter myocardial architecture and function and are associated with progression to heart failure. MIF is a diffuse and patchy process, appearing as a combination of interstitial microscars, perivascular collagen fiber deposition, and increased thickness of mysial collagen strands. Although MIF arises mainly because of alterations in fibrillar collagen turnover leading to collagen fiber accumulation, there are also alterations in other nonfibrillar extracellular matrix components, such as fibronectin and matricellular proteins. Furthermore, in addition to an excess of collagen, qualitative changes in collagen fibers also contribute to the detrimental impact of MIF. In this part 3 of a 4-part JACC Focus Seminar, we review the evidence on the complex mechanisms leading to MIF, as well as its contribution to systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction and impaired clinical outcomes in patients with nonischemic heart disease.