© 2015 Hoogwout et al. Background: In recent years, there is considerable evidence of a relationship between the sensorimotor disorder restless legs syndrome (RLS) and pain disorders, including migraine and fibromyalgia. An association between multi-site pain and RLS has been reported in adult women. In the current study, we explored the association between musculoskeletal (MSK) pain and RLS in a large cohort of young adults. Methods: Twenty two year olds (n∈=∈1072), followed since birth of part of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, provided data on MSK pain (duration, severity, frequency, number of pain sites). RLS was considered present when 4 diagnostic criteria recommended by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group were met (urge to move, dysaesthesia, relief by movement, worsening symptoms during the evening/night) and participants had these symptoms at least 5 times per month. Associations between MSK pain and RLS were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression with bias-corrected bootstrapped confidence intervals, with final models adjusted for sex, psychological distress and sleep quality. Results: The prevalence of RLS was 3.0 % and MSK pain was reported by 37.4 % of the participants. In multivariable logistic regression models, strong associations were found between RLS-diagnosis and long duration (three months or more) of MSK pain (odds ratio 3.6, 95 % confidence interval 1.4-9.2) and reporting three or more pain sites (4.9, 1.6-14.6). Conclusions: Different dimensions of MSK pain were associated with RLS in young adults, suggestive of shared pathophysiological mechanisms. Overlap between these conditions requires more clinical and research attention.