Inflammation and oxidative stress are strongly implicated in the pathology of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and the sulphur-containing amino acid taurine ameliorates both and decreases dystropathology in the mdx mouse model for DMD. We therefore further tested taurine as a therapy using dystrophic DMDmdx rats and dmd zebrafish models for DMD that have a more severe dystropathology. However, taurine treatment had little effect on the indices of dystropathology in both these models. While we and others have previously observed a deficiency in taurine in mdx mice, in the current study we show that the rat and zebrafish models had increased taurine content compared with wild-type, and taurine treatment did not increase muscle taurine levels. We therefore hypothesised that endogenous levels of taurine are a key determinate in potential taurine treatment efficacy. Because of this, we felt it important to measure taurine levels in DMD patient plasma samples and showed that in non-ambulant patients (but not in younger patients) there was a deficiency of taurine. These data suggest that taurine homeostasis varies greatly between species and may be influenced by age and disease progression. The potential for taurine to be an effective therapy may depend on such variables.