Stem cells have been proposed as a wonder solution for tissue repair in many situations and have attracted much attention in the media for both their therapeutic potential and ethical implications. In addition to the excitement generated by embryonic stem cells, research has now identified a number of stem cells within adult tissues which pose much more realistic targets for therapeutic interventions. Myoblast transfer therapy (MTT) has long been viewed as a potential therapy for the debilitating muscle-wasting disorder Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. This technique relies on the transplantation of committed muscle precursor cells directly into the muscle fibres but has had little success in clinical trials. The recent discovery of a population of cells within adult muscle with stem cell-like characteristics has interesting implications for the future of such putative cell transplantation therapies. This review focuses on the characterization and application of these potential muscle-derived stem cells (MDSC) to MTT.