BackgroundWorkers in the textile industry may be exposed to textile dusts, a wide range of chemicals and electromagnetic radiation.AimTo investigate the risk of mortality in a cohort of textile workers and examine whether specific occupational exposures were associated with mortality.MethodData on members and former members of a textile industry union were extracted from membership cards and matched with the National Death Index to obtain date and cause of death. Exposure to 31 different substances was assessed using a specifically designed job exposure matrix that consisted of profiles of exposures in 11 occupational titles. These profiles were modified according to individual circumstances. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed comparing the cohort to the Australian population and Mantel-Haenszel estimates of the rate ratios were computed comparing exposed with unexposed for each of the substances.ResultsThere were 113 deaths in the cohort of 7684 workers. Male and female textile workers had similar risks of death from any cause, cancer or cardiovascular disease to the general Australian population. Male workers had an increased risk of death from injury (SMR = 157, 95% confidence interval 113–213). There were no statistically significant increases in risk with particular occupational exposures.ConclusionMale textile workers are at higher risk of death from injury.