Molten halide catalysts for coal-bitumen coprocessing under low severity conditions

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Coprocessing experiments have been carried out in a batch autoclave to study the effectiveness of molten halide catalysts consisting of ZnCl2 and its mixtures with MoCl5, KCl, CuCl, and SnCl2 on the simultaneous liquefaction of a subbituminous coal and upgrading of Athabasca bitumen. The effect of different variables such as temperature, reaction time, catalyst quantity and more importantly catalyst formulation were studied. The optimum temperature and reaction time were found to be 400°C and 2 hours, respectively. Under these conditions and under 7 MPa H2 pressure, a net coal conversion of 75% of the daf (dry ash free) coal was achieved. A combination of ZnCl2, MoCl5 and KCl was found to be the best catalyst for the coprocessing of Athabasca bitumen and a subbituminous coal. For this catalyst combination the liquid yield was 75.9 wt% of the daf feed. Coke and gas yields were 16.75% and 7.35% respectively. For separate processing of bitumen and coal under similar operating conditions liquid, coke and gas yields would be 56.13%, 28.70% and 15.17%, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)155-160
Number of pages6
JournalFuel Processing Technology
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1993
Externally publishedYes


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