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Interest in deep eutectic solvents (DESs), particularly for electrochemical applications, has boomed in the past decade because they are more versatile than conventional electrolyte solutions and are low cost, renewable, and non-toxic. The molecular scale lateral nanostructures as a function of potential at the solid-liquid interface-critical design parameters for the use of DESs as electrochemical solvents-are yet to be revealed. In this work, in situ amplitude modulated atomic force microscopy complemented by molecular dynamics simulations is used to probe the Stern and near-surface layers of the archetypal and by far most studied DES, 1:2 choline chloride:urea (reline), at the highly orientated pyrolytic graphite surface as a function of potential, to reveal highly ordered lateral nanostructures with unprecedented molecular resolution. This detail allows identification of choline, chloride, and urea in the Stern layer on graphite, and in some cases their orientations. Images obtained after the potential is switched from negative to positive show the dynamics of the Stern layer response, revealing that several minutes are required to reach equilibrium. These results provide valuable insight into the nanostructure and dynamics of DESs at the solid-liquid interface, with implications for the rational design of DESs for interfacial applications.
|Number of pages||14|
|Early online date||10 Jan 2023|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 10 Jan 2023|
FingerprintDive into the research topics of 'Molecular Resolution Nanostructure and Dynamics of the Deep Eutectic Solvent-Graphite Interface as a Function of Potential'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.
Nanostructured Ionic-Molecular Hybrid Liquids
Warr, G., Atkin, R., Perkin, S. & Edlar, K.
1/01/20 → 31/12/23
Ionic Liquids for Scalable Production of Monolayer 2D Materials
Atkin, R., Warr, G., Tabor, R. & Padua, A.
1/01/18 → 21/03/21