Moiré patterns from two-dimensional (2D) graphene heterostructures assembled via van der Waals interactions have sparked considerable interests in physics with the purpose to tailor the electronic properties of graphene. Here we report for the first time the observation of moiré patterns arising from a bilayer graphone/graphene superlattice produced through direct single-sided hydrogenation of a bilayer graphene on substrate. Compared to pristine graphene, the bilayer superlattice exhibits a rippled surface and two types of moiré patterns are observed: triangular and linear moiré patterns with the periodicities of 11 nm and 8–9 nm, respectively. These moiré patterns are revealed from atomic force microscopy and further confirmed by following fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are also performed and the optimized lattice constants of bilayer superlattice heterostructure are in line with our experimental analysis. These findings show that well-defined triangular and linear periodic potentials can be introduced into the graphene system through the single-sided hydrogenation and also open a route towards the tailoring of electronic properties of graphene by various moiré potentials.