Modelling of Liquid Hydrogen Boil‐Off

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25 Citations (Scopus)


A model has been developed and implemented in the software package BoilFAST that allows for reliable calculations of the self‐pressurization and boil‐off losses for liquid hydrogen in different tank geometries and thermal insulation systems. The model accounts for the heat transfer from the vapor to the liquid phase, incorporates realistic heat transfer mechanisms, and uses refer-ence equations of state to calculate thermodynamic properties. The model is validated by testing against a variety of scenarios using multiple sets of industrially relevant data for liquid hydrogen (LH2), including self‐pressurization and densification data obtained from an LH2 storage tank at NASA’s Kennedy Space Centre. The model exhibits excellent agreement with experimental and industrial data across a range of simulated conditions, including zero boil‐off in microgravity envi-ronments, self‐pressurization of a stored mass of LH2, and boil‐off from a previously pressurized tank as it is being relieved of vapor.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1149
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2022


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