Universally, wine quality is determined by attributes of the fruit at harvest. The composition of a grape berry vary greatly within- and between-vines. However, it is challenging to measure these accurately in field settings. This thesis demonstrates that berry mass is a primary, within-vine, determinant of composition, regardless of, but influenced by whole vine biomass. An alternative pathway for metabolite translocation is proposed. A new, hierarchical sampling protocol is presented. This protocol enables precise and repeatable estimation of a parameter of interest, in the field, for a given budget.