Modeling the development of cognitive reserve in children: A residual index approach

Zubin A Irani, Andrew M C Sheridan, Timothy J Silk, Vicki Anderson, Michael Weinborn, Brandon E Gavett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: To model cognitive reserve (CR) longitudinally in a neurodiverse pediatric sample using a residual index approach, and to test the criterion and construct validity of this index.

METHOD: Participants were N = 115 children aged 9.5-13 years at baseline ( M Age = 10.48 years, SD Age = 0.61), and n = 43 (37.4%) met criteria for ADHD. The CR index represented variance in Matrix Reasoning scores from the WASI that was unexplained by MRI-based brain variables (bilateral hippocampal volumes, total gray matter volumes, and total white matter hypointensity volumes) or demographics (age and sex).

RESULTS: At baseline, the CR index predicted math computation ability (estimate = 0.50, SE = 0.07, p < .001), and word reading ability (estimate = 0.26, SE = 0.10, p = .012). Longitudinally, change in CR over time was not associated with change in math computation ability (estimate = -0.02, SE = 0.03, p < .513), but did predict change in word reading ability (estimate = 0.10, SE = 0.03, p < .001). Change in CR was also found to moderate the relationship between change in word reading ability and white matter hypointensity volume (estimate = 0.10, SE = 0.05, p = .045).

CONCLUSIONS: Evidence for the criterion validity of this CR index is encouraging, but somewhat mixed, while construct validity was evidenced through interaction between CR, brain, and word reading ability. Future research would benefit from optimization of the CR index through careful selection of brain variables for a pediatric sample.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)264-272
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS
Issue number3
Early online date5 Sept 2023
Publication statusPublished - 5 Mar 2024


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