Modeling the balanced inventory of desirable responding: Evidence in favor of a revised model of socially desirable responding

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Paulhus (1984) proposed a 2-factor model of socially desirable responding (SDR) and created the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) to capture the 2 dimensions: self-deceptive enhancement and impression management. However, the 2-factor model has yet to be supported via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the BIDR. Paulhus and Reid (1991) proposed a revised model of SDR, which bifurcated the self-deceptive enhancement dimension into 2 factors: self-deceptive enhancement (SDE; positively keyed items) and self-deceptive denial (SDD; negatively keyed items). Thus, it was considered useful to test the revised SDR model on the BIDR, as this might have implications for the manner in which the BIDR should be scored. Additionally, as the BIDR subscales might be positively correlated, it was considered useful from a both a theoretical and practical perspective to test the possibility that the BIDR might measure a general SDR process. Based on a sample of 466 adults, Paulhus and Reid's revised model of SDR was largely supported when tested via CFA on a bifactor model, which included a first-order general SDR factor and 2 nested factors. Thus, applied researchers might consider using total BIDR composite scores, a self-deceptive enhancement composite score (positively keyed items), and impression management composite scores. However, ideally, researchers would use a bifactor model to test substantive hypotheses, as the bifactor model partitions true score variance into unique sources, which facilitates less ambiguous interpretations of effects. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)645-656
JournalJournal of Personality Assessment
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2013


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