Modeling depression in Parkinson disease: Disease-specific and nonspecific risk factors

A.F.G. Leentjens, A.J.H. Moonen, K. Dujardin, L. Marsh, P. Martínez-Martín, I.H. Richard, Sergio Starkstein, S. Köhler

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    35 Citations (Scopus)


    Objective: To construct a model for depression in Parkinson disease (PD) and to study the relative contribution of PD-specific and nonspecific risk factors to this model. Methods: Structural equation modeling of direct and indirect associations of risk factors with the latent depression outcome using a cross-sectional dataset of 342 patients with PD. Results: Amodel with acceptable fitwas generated that explained 41% of the variance in depression. In the final model, 3 PD-specific variables (increased disease duration, more severe motor symptoms, the use of levodopa) and 6 nonspecific variables (female sex, history of anxiety and/or depression, family history of depression, worse functioning on activities of daily living, and worse cognitive status) were maintained and significantly associated with depression. Nonspecific risk factors had a 3-timeshigher influence in the model than PD-specific risk factors. Conclusion: In this cross-sectional study, we showed that nonspecific factors may be more prominent markers of depression than PD-specific factors. Accordingly, research on depression in PD should focus not only on factors associated with or specific for PD, but should also examine a wider scope of factors including general risk factors for depression, not specific for PD. © 2013 American Academy of Neurology.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1036-1043
    Issue number12
    Publication statusPublished - 2013


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