Modal salient belief and social cognitive variables of anti-doping behaviors in sport: Examining an extended model of the theory of planned behavior

D.K.C. Chan, S.J. Hardcastle, James Dimmock, V. Lentillon-Kaestner, R.J. Donovan, M. Burgin, M.S. Hagger

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Abstract

© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Objectives: This study examined the modal salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs within the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in the context of anti-doping in sport. We tested the efficacy of four hypothesized expectancy-value models as predictors of the directly-measured social-cognitive components of the TPB toward doping avoidance: attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intention. Methods: After developing the belief-expectancy and belief-value of modal salient beliefs items based on a pilot belief-elicitation study of young elite athletes (N=57, mean age=18.02), 410 young athletes (mean age=17.70) completed questionnaire items of the modal salient beliefs and direct measures of the social-cognitive components of doping avoidance. Variance-based structural equation modeling was used to examine the four proposed expectancy-value models. Results: Belief-expectancies, belief-values, and the expectancy-belief multiplicative composites formed positive associations with their corresponding social cognitive variables. The model in which belief-expectancies were the sole predictors of the social cognitive provided the most parsimonious and reliable model to explain the relationship between modal salient beliefs and directly-measured social-cognitive variables for doping avoidance in sport. Conclusion: Belief-expectancies including behavioral belief strength (e.g., "doping avoidance is likely to ease the worry of being caught doping"), normative belief strength ("my coach thinks that I should avoid doping") and control belief strength ("I expect I have power to 'say no' to doping") are the belief-based components that underpin direct measures of the social-cognitive variables from the TPB with respect to doping avoidance.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)164-174
JournalPsychology of Sport and Exercise
Volume16
Issue numberP2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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Chan, D.K.C. ; Hardcastle, S.J. ; Dimmock, James ; Lentillon-Kaestner, V. ; Donovan, R.J. ; Burgin, M. ; Hagger, M.S. / Modal salient belief and social cognitive variables of anti-doping behaviors in sport: Examining an extended model of the theory of planned behavior. In: Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2015 ; Vol. 16, No. P2. pp. 164-174.
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abstract = "{\circledC} 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Objectives: This study examined the modal salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs within the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in the context of anti-doping in sport. We tested the efficacy of four hypothesized expectancy-value models as predictors of the directly-measured social-cognitive components of the TPB toward doping avoidance: attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intention. Methods: After developing the belief-expectancy and belief-value of modal salient beliefs items based on a pilot belief-elicitation study of young elite athletes (N=57, mean age=18.02), 410 young athletes (mean age=17.70) completed questionnaire items of the modal salient beliefs and direct measures of the social-cognitive components of doping avoidance. Variance-based structural equation modeling was used to examine the four proposed expectancy-value models. Results: Belief-expectancies, belief-values, and the expectancy-belief multiplicative composites formed positive associations with their corresponding social cognitive variables. The model in which belief-expectancies were the sole predictors of the social cognitive provided the most parsimonious and reliable model to explain the relationship between modal salient beliefs and directly-measured social-cognitive variables for doping avoidance in sport. Conclusion: Belief-expectancies including behavioral belief strength (e.g., {"}doping avoidance is likely to ease the worry of being caught doping{"}), normative belief strength ({"}my coach thinks that I should avoid doping{"}) and control belief strength ({"}I expect I have power to 'say no' to doping{"}) are the belief-based components that underpin direct measures of the social-cognitive variables from the TPB with respect to doping avoidance.",
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Modal salient belief and social cognitive variables of anti-doping behaviors in sport: Examining an extended model of the theory of planned behavior. / Chan, D.K.C.; Hardcastle, S.J.; Dimmock, James; Lentillon-Kaestner, V.; Donovan, R.J.; Burgin, M.; Hagger, M.S.

In: Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Vol. 16, No. P2, 2015, p. 164-174.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Chan, D.K.C.

AU - Hardcastle, S.J.

AU - Dimmock, James

AU - Lentillon-Kaestner, V.

AU - Donovan, R.J.

AU - Burgin, M.

AU - Hagger, M.S.

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N2 - © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Objectives: This study examined the modal salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs within the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in the context of anti-doping in sport. We tested the efficacy of four hypothesized expectancy-value models as predictors of the directly-measured social-cognitive components of the TPB toward doping avoidance: attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intention. Methods: After developing the belief-expectancy and belief-value of modal salient beliefs items based on a pilot belief-elicitation study of young elite athletes (N=57, mean age=18.02), 410 young athletes (mean age=17.70) completed questionnaire items of the modal salient beliefs and direct measures of the social-cognitive components of doping avoidance. Variance-based structural equation modeling was used to examine the four proposed expectancy-value models. Results: Belief-expectancies, belief-values, and the expectancy-belief multiplicative composites formed positive associations with their corresponding social cognitive variables. The model in which belief-expectancies were the sole predictors of the social cognitive provided the most parsimonious and reliable model to explain the relationship between modal salient beliefs and directly-measured social-cognitive variables for doping avoidance in sport. Conclusion: Belief-expectancies including behavioral belief strength (e.g., "doping avoidance is likely to ease the worry of being caught doping"), normative belief strength ("my coach thinks that I should avoid doping") and control belief strength ("I expect I have power to 'say no' to doping") are the belief-based components that underpin direct measures of the social-cognitive variables from the TPB with respect to doping avoidance.

AB - © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Objectives: This study examined the modal salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs within the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in the context of anti-doping in sport. We tested the efficacy of four hypothesized expectancy-value models as predictors of the directly-measured social-cognitive components of the TPB toward doping avoidance: attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intention. Methods: After developing the belief-expectancy and belief-value of modal salient beliefs items based on a pilot belief-elicitation study of young elite athletes (N=57, mean age=18.02), 410 young athletes (mean age=17.70) completed questionnaire items of the modal salient beliefs and direct measures of the social-cognitive components of doping avoidance. Variance-based structural equation modeling was used to examine the four proposed expectancy-value models. Results: Belief-expectancies, belief-values, and the expectancy-belief multiplicative composites formed positive associations with their corresponding social cognitive variables. The model in which belief-expectancies were the sole predictors of the social cognitive provided the most parsimonious and reliable model to explain the relationship between modal salient beliefs and directly-measured social-cognitive variables for doping avoidance in sport. Conclusion: Belief-expectancies including behavioral belief strength (e.g., "doping avoidance is likely to ease the worry of being caught doping"), normative belief strength ("my coach thinks that I should avoid doping") and control belief strength ("I expect I have power to 'say no' to doping") are the belief-based components that underpin direct measures of the social-cognitive variables from the TPB with respect to doping avoidance.

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