This paper examines how the mining sector in Vietnam has influenced socio-economic wellbeing across 63 provinces during the period, 2009–2014. Three fixed effects models were created to examine the relationship between measures of wellbeing (poverty, income and unemployment) and influencing factors. Findings indicate that mining is one of the drivers of socio-economic well-being at the national level however; the role of mining in enhancing wellbeing at the provincial level is more nuanced. Although mining is important for the nation's economy, less is understood about how mining has influenced livelihoods in local communities. Therefore, in order to have a better understanding about the relationship between mining and socio-economic wellbeing at the local level, further research is required.