The aim of this paper is to assess the effect of microwave treatment on copper sulfide ore for ball milling and bed breakage. Liberation analysis of ground products in eight size fractions showed that microwave pretreatment liberated more chalcopyrite particles from the bed breakage product than the ball mill product. In bed breakage, microwave pretreatment caused a 2% increase in chalcopyrite liberation on average. Microwave pretreatment produces more elongated particles in ball milling and more rounded particles in bed breakage, respectively. Microwave pretreatment produces coarser chalcopyrite particles with a wide range of sizes. This effect is more significant in bed breakage compared with ball milling. Micro-flotation test results showed that in ball milling, treated and untreated materials have similar metallurgical performance and there is a little difference (1%) between the average Cu recovery values. However, in bed breakage, the average recovery for the treated materials is about 5% higher than the untreated materials.