Dental variation in the Chinese golden monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) is here evaluated by univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses. Allometric analyses indicate that canines and P3s are positively, but other dimensions negatively scaled to mandible and maxilla, and to body size. With the exception of the mesiodistal dimensions of I-1 and M-3, and the buccolingual dimension of Pq, mandibular dental variables show similar scaling relative to body size. Analysis of residuals shows that males have significantly larger canine, P-3 and buccolingual dimensions of the postcanine teeth (M-2 and M-3) than females. A significant difference in shape between the sexes is found in the buccolingual dimension of the upper teeth, but not in the mandible. Unlike the situation in some other species, Female golden monkeys do nor exhibit relatively larger postcanine teeth than males, in fact, the reverse is true, especially for M(2)s and M(3)s. The fact that most of the dental variables show low negative allometry to body size might be related a cold environment that has led to the development of larger body size with I-educed energy loss. When the raw data are examined by Discriminant Function Analysis the sexes are clearly distinguishable.