Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is often caused by feeding a high-concentrate diet in intensive ruminant production. Although previous studies have shown that dietary thiamine supple-mentation can effectively increase rumen pH and modify rumen fermentation, the effect of thiamine supplementation on rumen carbohydrate-related microorganisms and enzymes in goats under SARA conditions remain unclear. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary thiamine supplementation on carbohydrate-associated microorganisms and enzymes in the rumen of Saanen goats fed high-concentrate diets. Nine healthy mid-lactating Saanen goats in parity 1 or 2 were randomly assigned into three treatments: A control diet (CON; concentrate:forage (30:70)), a high-concentrate diet (HC; concentrate:forage (70:30)), and a high-concentrate diet with 200 mg of thiamine/kg of DMI (HCT; concentrate:forage (70:30)). Compared with the HC group, dietary thiamine supplementation improved ruminal microbes associated with fiber, including Pre-votella, Fibrobacter, Neocallimastix, and Piromyces (p < 0.05). In addition, an increase in the relative abundance of enzymes involved in both fiber degradation and starch degradation, such as CBM16, GH3, and GH97, was observed in the HCT treatment. (p < 0.05). Thus, thiamine supplementation can improve carbohydrate metabolism by increasing the abundance of the microorganisms and enzymes involved in carbohydrate degradation. In conclusion, this study revealed the relationship between ruminal microbiota and enzymes, and these findings contributed to solving the problems arising from the high-concentrate feeding in ruminant production and to providing a new perspective on ruminant health.