Metabolic regulation is the key mechanism implicated in plants maintaining cell osmotic potential under drought stress. Understanding drought stress tolerance in plants will have a significant impact on food security in the face of increasingly harsh climatic conditions. Plant primary and secondary metabolites and metabolic genes are key factors in drought tolerance through their involvement in diverse metabolic pathways. Physio-biochemical and molecular strategies involved in plant tolerance mechanisms could be exploited to increase plant survival under drought stress. This review summarizes the most updated findings on primary and secondary metabolites involved in drought stress. We also examine the application of useful metabolic genes and their molecular responses to drought tolerance in plants and discuss possible strategies to help plants to counteract unfavorable drought periods.