Primary hyperoxaluria type 3 (PH3) is a recently described cause of childhood renal calculi. It results from mutations in the HOGA1 gene and most cases have been diagnosed after clinical ascertainment, exclusion of other genetic hyperoxalurias and mutation testing. Metabolite testing has not been widely applied but holds promise for the rapid screening and diagnosis of patients who are not specifically suspected to have PH3.
Two cases presented with renal calculi. Urine metabolite testing by tandem mass spectrometry was performed as part of the routine diagnostic work-up for this condition. Both had significantly increased levels of the PH3 urine marker 4-hydroxyglutamate and related metabolites. The diagnosis of PH3 was confirmed by the finding of bi-allelic damaging HOGA1 mutations.
Urine screening by tandem mass spectrometry is a rapid, high-throughput test that can detect PH3 cases that may otherwise not be diagnosed.