© 2015 Elsevier Inc.. Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS), defined as obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia, is prevalent among patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA). MS has proven to promote a proinflammatory and prothrombotic state in patients. Venous thromboembolism is one of the major complications of TJA. The purpose of this retrospective study is to identify whether MS and its components increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after TJA. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 1553 patients undergoing primary unilateral TJA from 2007 to 2014. MS was diagnosed based on the World Health Organization criteria. All subjects received venography after operation to screen for DVT. Symptomatic DVT events after TJA were also recorded. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to identify the association of MS and its components with postoperative DVT. Results: The prevalence of MS in patients undergoing TJA was 5.1% (n = 79). A total of 335 patients (21.6%) were diagnosed with DVT by venography. Seventy-eight patients (5.0%) developed symptomatic DVT. In the total knee arthroplasty group, MS and obesity were related to postoperative DVT. MS alone was found to be associated with symptomatic DVT. In the total hip arthroplasty group, MS increased the risk of symptomatic DVT. However, obesity, rather than MS, was associated with total DVT after total hip arthroplasty. Conclusions: MS was a significant risk factor for DVT after TJA. Strategies to minimize the adverse effect of MS should be considered for these patients.