Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of topical medroxyprogesterone (MPG) following KPro implantation in human subjects in whom donor tissue grafts had been contraindicated by high risk of failure. Methods: Outcomes of implantation of the Chirila KPro, now known as AlphaCor, were reviewed with respect to postoperative MPG therapy. Ten of 45 (22%) patients had received MPG for a period of 12 months, while 35/45 (78%) had not. MPG treatment was halted because the drug is not approved as an adjunctive treatment of KPro patients. The main outcome measures were the incidence and timing of corneal stromal melting and visual acuity. Results: Of those untreated with MPG, 34% developed a melt (mean follow-up 9.7 months), whereas of those who received MPG, 60% developed a melt (mean follow-up 28.4 months). However, mean time to melt onset for untreated cases was 8.8 months, whereas mean time to melt onset for treated cases was 23.2 months. There is a statistically significant association between time to melt onset, where melts occurred, and MPG therapy (chi(2) = 0.001). In both groups, melts were strongly associated with a history of ocular HSV, which represented 17.1% of untreated and 20% of treated cases and is now considered a contraindication for AlphaCor. Preoperative visual acuities were in the range Perception Light (PL)-Count Fingers (CF) in all cases, whereas mean best postoperative best corrected visual acuity was 20/200 (range PL-20/30) in untreated cases and was 20/120 [range Hand Movements (HM)-20/30)] in MPG-treated cases. Conclusions: Although MPG may not influence the underlying incidence of melt-related complications, which are likely to be associated with other risk factors especially HSV, it may have a protective effect with regard to melt onset and severity. Controlled studies would assist evaluation of its use in this indication.