Mediation analysis of the testosterone treatment effect to prevent type 2 diabetes in the Testosterone for Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus trial

Kristy P. Robledo, Ian C. Marschner, David J. Handelsman, Karen Bracken, Bronwyn G.A. Stuckey, Bu B. Yeap, Warrick Inder, Mathis Grossmann, David Jesudason, Carolyn A. Allan, Gary Wittert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine if testosterone treatment effect on glycaemia is mediated through changes in total fat mass, abdominal fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, non-dominant hand-grip, oestradiol (E2), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). DESIGN: Mediation analysis of a randomised placebo-controlled trial of testosterone. METHODS: Six Australian tertiary care centres recruited 1007 males, aged 50-74 years, with waist circumference ≥95 cm, serum total testosterone ≤14 nmol/L (immunoassay), and either impaired glucose tolerance or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes on an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Participants were enrolled in a lifestyle programme and randomised 1:1 to 3 monthly injections of 1000 mg testosterone undecanoate or placebo for 2 years. Complete data were available for 709 participants (70%). Mediation analyses for the primary outcomes of type 2 diabetes at 2 years (OGTT ≥ 11.1 mmol/L and change in 2-h glucose from baseline), incorporating potential mediators: changes in fat mass, % abdominal fat, skeletal muscle mass, non-dominant hand-grip strength, E2, and SHBG, were performed. RESULTS: For type 2 diabetes at 2 years, the unadjusted OR for treatment was 0.53 (95% CI:.35-.79), which became 0.48 (95% CI:.30-.76) after adjustment for covariates. Including potential mediators attenuated the treatment effect (OR 0.77; 95% CI:.44-1.35; direct effect) with 65% mediated. Only fat mass remained prognostic in the full model (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.09-1.39; P < .001). CONCLUSION: At least part of the testosterone treatment effect was found to be mediated by changes in fat mass, abdominal fat, skeletal muscle mass, grip strength, SHBG, and E2, but predominantly by changes in fat mass.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)613-620
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Endocrinology
Volume188
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jul 2023

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