This paper proposes a mechanistic model to simulate the thermal and mechanical behaviour of shape memory alloys. The model is based on the thermodynamic concept of chemical, elastic and frictional energies for thermoelastic martensitic transformations and plasticity concept of grain interior and grain boundary phases. In a thermoelastic martensitic transformation system, a thermally induced transformation and a mechanically induced (stress-induced) transformation require different operating mechanisms from a mechanistic viewpoint. For a thermally induced transformation, the driving force arises from within the matrix and internal stresses are created as a result of frictional movement. For a mechanically induced transformation, the driving force is provided externally and the frictional movement occurs when the stress exceeds a critical value. This paper proposes a unified mechanistic model taking into account this difference. The model is able to describe, in a schematic and qualitative manner, the behaviour of a thermoelastic martensitic transformation system in both thermally induced and mechanically induced processes, including full and partial thermal transformation cycles, stress-induced martensitic transformation, pseudoelastic deformation and ferroelastic deformation via martensite variant reorientation. Such a model allows the discussion of several aspects concerning the thermal and mechanical behaviour of thermoelastic martensitic transformations, such as the non-linear pseudoelasticity, deformation-induced two-way memory effect, strain dependence of mechanical hysteresis and minor loop behaviour of deformation.
Liu, Y., Favier, D., & Orgeas, L. (2004). Mechanistic simulation of thermomechanical behaviour of thermoelastic martensitic transformations in polycrystalline shape memory alloys. Journal de Physique IV, 115, 37-45. https://doi.org/10.1051/jp4:2004115005