A novel way to ensure stability of mortarless structures – topological interlocking – is examined. In this type of interlocking the overall shape and arrangement of the building blocks are chosen in such a way that the movement of each block is prevented by its neighbours. (The methodological roots of topological interlocking can be found in two ancient structures: the arch and the dry stone wall.) The topological interlocking proper is achieved by two types of blocks: simple convex forms such as the Platonic solids (tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron) that allow plate-like assemblies and specially engineered shapes of the block surfaces that also allow assembling corners. An important example of the latter – so-called Osteomorphic block – is the main object of this research with some insight being provided by numerical modelling of plates assembled from tetrahedra and cubes in the interlocking position. The main structural feature of the interlocking assemblies is the need of the peripheral constraint (for the Osteomorphic blocks this requirement can be relaxed to uni-directional constraint) to keep their integrity. We studied the least visible constraint structure – internal pre-stressed cables which run through pre-fabricated holes in Osteomorphic blocks. It is shown that the pre-stressed steel cables can provide the necessary constraint force without creating appreciable residual stresses in the cables, however the points of connection of the cables are the weakest points and need special treatment. The main mechanical feature of the interlocking structures is the absence of block bonding. As a result, the blocks have a certain freedom of translational and rotational movement (within the kinematic constraints of the assembly) and their contacts have reduced shear stresses which hampers fracture propagation from one block to another. These features pre-determine the specific ways the interlocking assemblies behave under mechanical and dynamic impacts. These were studied in this project and the following results are reported. As the blocks in the interlocking structure are not connected, the main issue is the bearing capacity. The study of the least favourable, central point loading in the direction normal to the structure shows elevated large-scale fracture toughness (resistance to fracture propagation). However when the central force imposes considerable bending the generated tensile membrane stresses assist fracturing of the loaded block. Prevention of bending considerably enhances the strength therefore the most efficient application of the interlocking structures would be in protective coatings and covers. Furthermore, proper selection of the material properties and the interface friction can increase the system overall strength and bearing capacity. The results of the computer simulations suggest that both Young’s modulus and the friction coefficient are the key parameters whose increase improves the bearing capacity of topologically interlocking assemblies.
|Qualification||Doctor of Philosophy|
|Publication status||Unpublished - 2008|