The agricultural sector of California is one of the most diverse and economically valuable in the world, but is dominated by woody perennial, and annual warm-season crops, dependent on irrigation. These face potential problems from restrictions to irrigation water supply and climate change. Canola and camelina could be used to diversify cool-season cropping in the state, but the water use of these species in the region is poorly understood. In this study, both the total and temporal water use of canola and camelina under cool-season production conditions in California were investigated using field-based and computer modeling approaches. Total and temporal water-use of both species were found to be similar to what has been observed in other regions under cool-season conditions. Observed seasonal water uptake patterns also closely matched predictions by the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model. These results inform the utilization of these species as new crops in California and also contribute to estimates of water use by these globally significant oilseeds under Mediterranean to arid climate conditions. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.