The role of temperature and rainfall during seed development in modulating subsequent seed dormancy status was studied for Lolium rigidum Gaud. (annual ryegrass). Climatic parameters relating to geographic origin were compared with annual ryegrass seed dormancy characteristics for seeds collected from 12 sites across the southern Western Australian cropping region. Seed germination was tested soon after collection and periodically during subsequent after-ripening. Temperature in the year of seed development and long-term rainfall patterns showed correlations with aspects of seed dormancy, particularly the proportion of seeds remaining dormant following 5 months of after-ripening. Consequently, for one population the temperature (warm/cool) and water supply (adequate/reduced) during seed development were manipulated to investigate the role of maternal environment in the quantity and dormancy characteristics of seeds produced. Seeds from plants grown at warm temperatures were fewer in number, weighed less, and were less dormant than those from plants grown at cool temperature. Seeds that developed under both cool temperature and reduced moisture conditions lost dormancy faster than seeds from well-watered plants. Seed maturation environment, particularly temperature, can have a significant effect on annual ryegrass seed numbers and seed dormancy characteristics.