Several case-control studies have shown a significant negative association between diabetes and abdominal aortic aneurysm ( AAA). This interaction has the potential to further our understanding of these two diseases but has attracted little research. The changes seen in the walls of aneurysmal aortas include inflammation and the activation of proteolytic pathways resulting in loss of elastin and other structural proteins. In contrast, diabetes is associated with increased synthesis and reduced degradation of matrix. The deposition of advanced glycation end products also renders vascular matrix resistant to proteolysis in diabetic patients. The aim of our present minireview is to compare the changes in matrix biology seen in diabetes and AAA and to explore molecular mechanisms that may explain the negative association and identify possible therapeutic implications.