This study aimed to investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricum as a dietary probiotic supplement in fishmeal based diet on growth, gut microbiota and immune performance of marron (Cherax cainii). Marron were randomly distributed into two different treatment groups, control and probiotic fed group. After 42 days of feeding trial, the results revealed a significant (P <0:05) increase in growth due to increase in number of moults in marron fed probiotics. The probiotic diet also significantly enhanced the total haemocyte counts (THC), lysozyme activity in the haemolymph and protein content of the tail muscle in marron. Compared to control, the 16S rRNA sequences data demonstrated an enrichment of bacterial diversity in the probiotic fed marron where significant increase of Clostridium abundance was observed. The abundance for crayfish pathogen Vibrio and Aeromonas were found to be significantly reduced post feeding with probiotic diet. Predicted metabolic pathway revealed an increased activity for the metabolism and absorption of carbohydrate, degradation of amino acid, fatty acid and toxic compounds, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. C. butyricum supplementation also significantly modulated the expression level of immune-responsive genes of marron post challenged with Vibrio mimicus. The overall results suggest that C. butyricum could be used as dietary probiotic supplement in marron aquaculture.