Marine protected areas: Contemporary challenges and developments

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference paperChapter


More than 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered in oceans and life on Earth began in the sea. Human influences on the natural environment date to the very earliest of times; whilst human populations were low and lifestyles traditional, our impacts were relatively minor. Over time unchecked resource exploitation began to have an effect on both land and in the sea. Today there is broad recognition that the marine environment and resources within it face anthropogenic threats from industries such as fishing, resource extraction and transportation, pollution from waste disposal, shipping and agricultural run-off and the introduction of invasive species. In coastal areas, even recreational use of our oceans is beginning to have an effect.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInternational Marine Environmental Law and Policy
EditorsDaud Hassan, Saiful Karim
Place of PublicationUSA
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)9781317230472, 9781315624921
ISBN (Print)9781138651111, 9781138651135
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jul 2018

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