In order to clarify the degree to which mandibular variation among Chinese macaques results from functional adaptation and phylogenetic inertia, 13 mandibular variables were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate techniques. The results indicate, not surprisingly, that the main differences in the mandible are associated with size. The study further implies that the variation between species is not closely associated with differences in functional adaptation even though the dietary and related differences are large compared to the situation in other macaques. The great variety in diet and related factors among Chinese macaques may not have yet resulted in a significant variation in the mandible. This may be because their radiation in Asia, though involving considerably greater differences in habitat, climate, and so on, has occurred more recently than for other macaque species in Southeast Asia. Mandibular variation between these species, therefore, is likely to be more closely tied to their immediate prior phylogenetic history. For example, the two stump-tailed macaques are closely similar and are also closely similar to the Assam species. Function in the mandible in these species is quite different. The results, therefore, seem to support the hypothesis that these three macaque species should be placed in a single species-group (sinica) as proposed by Delson , Pan , and Pan et al. . (C) 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.