© 2016, Japan Atherosclerosis Society. All rights reserved. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal-dominant genetic disease characterized by elevated plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and increased risk of premature atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD). Patients with FH in Hong Kong were found by the identification of potential probands with primary hypercholesterolemia manifesting total cholesterol levels greater than 7.5 mmol/L or LDL-C levels greater than 4.9 mmol/L and undertaking cascade screening of available relatives in the Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong since the early 1990s. Our previous study in a group of 252 subjects from 87 pedigrees clinically diagnosed as having heterozygous FH reported the mean plasma LDL-C level as 7.2±1.5 mmol/L. Xanthomata were present in 40.6% of males and 54.8% of females. The prevalence of known CHD was relatively low at 9.9% in males and 8.5% in females. All FH patients were offered treatment with statins and many of them reached the LDL-C goal with a moderate or high dose of potent statin alone. Ezetimibe is usually added for patients who have not achieved target LDL-C levels on statin alone, particularly in patients with established CHD. Some FH patients who have not achieved the LDL-C targets with this combination have entered into clinical trials with new cholesterol-modifying agents such as the monoclonal antibodies to proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9. Increased awareness, early identification, and optimal treatment are essential to reduce the risk of CHD, increase life expectancy, and improve the quality of life of patients with FH.