Man-made structures in the marine environment: a review of stakeholders’ social and economic values and perceptions

Carmen Elrick-Barr, Johanna Zimmerhackel, Georgie Hill, Julian Clifton, Fran Ackermann, Michael Burton, Euan Harvey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Citations (Web of Science)


Man-made marine structures (MMS) are commonly used to describe any artificial structure in the marine environment, encompassing oil and gas infrastructure and pipelines, artificial reefs, jetties, piers and shipwrecks. MMS are increasingly proposed to address issues facing marine planners, including augmenting fish stocks through the creation of artificial reefs and the repurposing of redundant offshore oil and gas infrastructure (‘rigs to reefs’). Marine spatial planning is a highly contested process, characterised by multiple stakeholders with often divergent priorities due to competing objectives and values. Understanding stakeholder perspectives in relation to MMS is therefore critical in formulating appropriate policies. This review presents the first systematic and comprehensive integration of information from academic journals and ‘grey’ literature relating to social and economic values and perceptions of MMS. The review identifies that, despite advocacy for research on social and economic values of MMS, there are significant gaps in knowledge, in particular relating to comparative assessments of stakeholder values across different types of MMS. Priority areas for future research are highlighted.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12-18
Number of pages7
JournalEnvironmental Science & Policy
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


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