Male germ cell transplantation is a novel technique in which donor male stem germ cells are surgically transferred to the seminiferous tubules of a recipient testis by direct injection or via the rete testis or efferent duct. All germ cells that are destined to become stem spermatogonia are defined as male stem germ cells, including primordial germ cells from the gonadal ridges, and gonocytes and stem spermatogonia from the testis, all of which are transplantable and capable of undergoing normal spermatogenesis. Xenotransplantation of male germ cells from one species into the testis of another species, including human testicular cells in the mouse, has so far proved to be unsuccessful. However, the immunodeficient mouse testis can support rat spermatogenesis and produce apparently normal rat spermatozoa. The underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The present mini-review will focus on the importance of stem spermatogonial transplantation for testicular stem cell biology and discuss the likelihood of immune rejection after transplantation, which may limit the success of all male germ cell transplantation.