Macro- And microstructural changes in cosmonauts' brains after long-duration spaceflight

Steven Jillings, Angelique Van Ombergen, Elena Tomilovskaya, Alena Rumshiskaya, Liudmila Litvinova, Inna Nosikova, Ekaterina Pechenkova, Ilya Rukavishnikov, Inessa B. Kozlovskaya, Olga Manko, Sergey Danilichev, Stefan Sunaert, Paul M. Parizel, Valentin Sinitsyn, Victor Petrovichev, Steven Laureys, Peterzu Eulenburg, Jan Sijbers, Floris L. Wuyts, Ben Jeurissen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Long-duration spaceflight causes widespread physiological changes, although its effect on brain structure remains poorly understood. In this work, we acquired diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to investigate alterations of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compositions in each voxel, before, shortly after, and 7 months after long-duration spaceflight. We found increased WM in the cerebellum after spaceflight, providing the first clear evidence of sensorimotor neuroplasticity. At the region of interest level, this increase persisted 7 months after return to Earth. We also observe a widespread redistribution of CSF, with concomitant changes in the voxel fractions of adjacent GM. We show that these GM changes are the result of morphological changes rather than net tissue loss, which remained unclear from previous studies. Our study provides evidence of spaceflight-induced neuroplasticity to adapt motor strategies in space and evidence of fluid shift- induced mechanical changes in the brain.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbereaaz9488
JournalScience Advances
Volume6
Issue number36
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2020

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