Machine-Learning-Based-Approaches for Sleep Stage Classification Utilising a Combination of Physiological Signals: A Systematic Review

Haifa Almutairi, Mubashar Hassan, Amitava Datta

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Increasingly prevalent sleep disorders worldwide significantly affect the well-being of individuals. Sleep disorder can be detected by dividing sleep into different stages. Hence, the accurate classification of sleep stages is crucial for detecting sleep disorders. The use of machine learning techniques on physiological signals has shown promising results in the automatic classification of sleep stages. The integration of information from multichannel physiological signals has shown to further enhance the accuracy of such classification. Existing literature reviews focus on studies utilising a single channel of EEG signals for sleep stage classification. However, other review studies focus on models developed for sleep stage classification, utilising either a single channel of physiological signals or a combination of various physiological signals. This review focuses on the classification of sleep stages through the integration of combined multichannel physiological signals and machine learning methods. We conducted a comprehensive review spanning from the year 2000 to 2023, aiming to provide a thorough and up-to-date resource for researchers in the field. We analysed approximately 38 papers investigating sleep stage classification employing various machine learning techniques integrated with combined signals. In this study, we describe the models proposed in the existing literature for sleep stage classification, discuss their limitations, and identify potential areas for future research.
Original languageEnglish
Article number13280
Number of pages24
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2023


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