The use of the luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analogues - goserelin (Zoladex™, AstraZeneca) and leuprorelin (Prostap™, Wyeth) - is well established and forms the backbone of the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. Comparable efficacy with orchidectomy and, historically, diethylstilbestrol (DES) is accepted, with the advantages of reversibility and limited thromboembolic and cardiovascular toxicity, respectively. Side effects such as hot flushes, loss of libido, lethargy and decreased bone mineral density have recently stimulated more interest in the use of non-steroidal anti-androgens such as bicalutamide (Casodex™, AstraZeneca) in locally advanced disease. Although better tolerated, bicalutamide has significant problems with gynaecomastia and breast pain. Maximal androgen blockade using LHRH analogues and their adjuvant use with radiotherapy are discussed, as well as their experimental application in intermittent androgen suppression therapy. Similar side effect profiles are reported for the LHRH analogues but injection tolerability differs with the smaller 23G needle for Prostap 3 compared to the 16G needle for Zoladex LA. There is no evidence to suggest a difference in the efficacy between the LHRH analogues goserelin and leuprorelin, although no direct comparison has yet been undertaken.