Low dose CT detected interstitial lung abnormalities in a population with low asbestos exposure

Edward J.A. Harris, Kuan P. Lim, Yuben Moodley, Brendan Adler, Nita Sodhi-Berry, Alison Reid, Conor P. Murray, Peter J. Franklin, A. W. Musk, Nicholas H. de Klerk, Fraser J.H. Brims

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: The use of low dose CT (LDCT) chest is becoming more widespread in occupationally exposed populations. There is a knowledge gap as to heterogeneity in severity and the natural course of asbestosis after low levels of exposure. This study reports the characteristics of LDCT-detected interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA). Methods: The Asbestos Review Program offers annual LDCT, health assessments, and pulmonary function tests to an asbestos-exposed cohort. Asbestosis was defined using the Helsinki Consensus statement and the presence of ILA defined using a protocol for occupational CT reports. At least two of three pulmonary function tests: forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1);​ forced vital capacity (FVC); and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) were required for analysis of physiological decline. Results: From 1513 cases, radiological ILA was present in 485 (32%). The cohort was 83.5% male with a median age of 68.3 years and a median (IQR) asbestos exposure of 0.7 (0.09–2.32) fiber/ml-year. A mixed occupation, mixed asbestos fiber cohort comprised the majority of the cohort (65.8%). Of those with ILA, 40 (8.2%) had an FVC decline of ≥10% and 30 (6.2%) had a DLco decline of ≥15% per year. Time since first exposure, increasing tobacco exposure and reported dyspnea were independently associated with the presence of ILA. Conclusions: In this population with relatively low asbestos exposure, LDCT-detected ILA that fits criteria for asbestosis is common, but physiological decline is not. This mild chronic stable phenotype of asbestos-associated ILA contrasts with the traditionally accepted views that asbestosis requires high exposures.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Industrial Medicine
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 3 May 2021

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