Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration Is Not Associated With Refractive Error in Middle-Aged and Older Western Australian Adults

Gareth Lingham, Seyhan Yazar, Robyn M. Lucas, John P. Walsh, Kun Zhu, Michael Hunter, Ee Mun Lim, Brian R. Cooke, David A. Mackey

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1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration and refractive error in a community-based cohort of adults aged 46 to 69 years.

Methods: Residents of the City of Busselton in Western Australia born between 1946 and 1964 were invited to participate. Participants underwent cycloplegic autore-fraction and completed questionnaires on education, occupational sun exposure, and physical activity. Blood samples were collected and serum frozen at -80 degrees C. Serum 25[OH]D concentration was measured by immunoassay. Data on 25[OH]D were deseasonalized and multivariate models built to analyze the association between 25[OH]D concentration and spherical equivalent and myopia, defined as spherical equivalent <-0.50 D.

Results: After exclusions, data were available for 4112 participants. Serum 25[OH]D concentration was not associated with spherical equivalent or myopia after adjustment for confounding factors (beta = -0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.03 to - 0.008, P = 0.25, and odds ratio = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.05, P = 0.12, respectively). When participants were classified into 25[OH]D groups of lower (= 50 to = 75 nmol/L), the upper group had slightly greater myopic refractive error than the medium group (P = 0.02) but not the lower group, after adjustment for confounders.

Conclusions: There was no substantial association between 25[OH]D levels and spherical equivalent or odds of myopia in this study. The association previously noted between low serum 25[OH]D level and myopia in younger Western Australians is not evident in later adulthood.

Translational Relevance: This study provides further evidence suggesting that vitamin D levels are unrelated to myopia risk in adults and thus not a suitable target for myopia intervention.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13
Number of pages11
JournalTranslational Vision Science and Technology
Volume8
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019

Cite this

@article{27b921fa07eb4c3f89ec303c6286fee7,
title = "Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration Is Not Associated With Refractive Error in Middle-Aged and Older Western Australian Adults",
abstract = "Purpose: To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration and refractive error in a community-based cohort of adults aged 46 to 69 years.Methods: Residents of the City of Busselton in Western Australia born between 1946 and 1964 were invited to participate. Participants underwent cycloplegic autore-fraction and completed questionnaires on education, occupational sun exposure, and physical activity. Blood samples were collected and serum frozen at -80 degrees C. Serum 25[OH]D concentration was measured by immunoassay. Data on 25[OH]D were deseasonalized and multivariate models built to analyze the association between 25[OH]D concentration and spherical equivalent and myopia, defined as spherical equivalent <-0.50 D.Results: After exclusions, data were available for 4112 participants. Serum 25[OH]D concentration was not associated with spherical equivalent or myopia after adjustment for confounding factors (beta = -0.01, 95{\%} confidence interval [CI]: -0.03 to - 0.008, P = 0.25, and odds ratio = 1.02, 95{\%} CI: 0.99 to 1.05, P = 0.12, respectively). When participants were classified into 25[OH]D groups of lower (= 50 to = 75 nmol/L), the upper group had slightly greater myopic refractive error than the medium group (P = 0.02) but not the lower group, after adjustment for confounders.Conclusions: There was no substantial association between 25[OH]D levels and spherical equivalent or odds of myopia in this study. The association previously noted between low serum 25[OH]D level and myopia in younger Western Australians is not evident in later adulthood.Translational Relevance: This study provides further evidence suggesting that vitamin D levels are unrelated to myopia risk in adults and thus not a suitable target for myopia intervention.",
keywords = "myopia, refractive error, vitamin D, adult, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, VITAMIN-D STATUS, TIME SPENT OUTDOORS, MYOPIA, EXPOSURE, PREVALENCE, RELIABILITY, PROGRESSION, RADIATION, TRACKING, CHILDREN",
author = "Gareth Lingham and Seyhan Yazar and Lucas, {Robyn M.} and Walsh, {John P.} and Kun Zhu and Michael Hunter and Lim, {Ee Mun} and Cooke, {Brian R.} and Mackey, {David A.}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1167/tvst.8.1.13",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
journal = "Translational Vision Science and Technology",
issn = "2164-2591",
publisher = "Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO)",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration Is Not Associated With Refractive Error in Middle-Aged and Older Western Australian Adults

AU - Lingham, Gareth

AU - Yazar, Seyhan

AU - Lucas, Robyn M.

AU - Walsh, John P.

AU - Zhu, Kun

AU - Hunter, Michael

AU - Lim, Ee Mun

AU - Cooke, Brian R.

AU - Mackey, David A.

PY - 2019/1

Y1 - 2019/1

N2 - Purpose: To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration and refractive error in a community-based cohort of adults aged 46 to 69 years.Methods: Residents of the City of Busselton in Western Australia born between 1946 and 1964 were invited to participate. Participants underwent cycloplegic autore-fraction and completed questionnaires on education, occupational sun exposure, and physical activity. Blood samples were collected and serum frozen at -80 degrees C. Serum 25[OH]D concentration was measured by immunoassay. Data on 25[OH]D were deseasonalized and multivariate models built to analyze the association between 25[OH]D concentration and spherical equivalent and myopia, defined as spherical equivalent <-0.50 D.Results: After exclusions, data were available for 4112 participants. Serum 25[OH]D concentration was not associated with spherical equivalent or myopia after adjustment for confounding factors (beta = -0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.03 to - 0.008, P = 0.25, and odds ratio = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.05, P = 0.12, respectively). When participants were classified into 25[OH]D groups of lower (= 50 to = 75 nmol/L), the upper group had slightly greater myopic refractive error than the medium group (P = 0.02) but not the lower group, after adjustment for confounders.Conclusions: There was no substantial association between 25[OH]D levels and spherical equivalent or odds of myopia in this study. The association previously noted between low serum 25[OH]D level and myopia in younger Western Australians is not evident in later adulthood.Translational Relevance: This study provides further evidence suggesting that vitamin D levels are unrelated to myopia risk in adults and thus not a suitable target for myopia intervention.

AB - Purpose: To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration and refractive error in a community-based cohort of adults aged 46 to 69 years.Methods: Residents of the City of Busselton in Western Australia born between 1946 and 1964 were invited to participate. Participants underwent cycloplegic autore-fraction and completed questionnaires on education, occupational sun exposure, and physical activity. Blood samples were collected and serum frozen at -80 degrees C. Serum 25[OH]D concentration was measured by immunoassay. Data on 25[OH]D were deseasonalized and multivariate models built to analyze the association between 25[OH]D concentration and spherical equivalent and myopia, defined as spherical equivalent <-0.50 D.Results: After exclusions, data were available for 4112 participants. Serum 25[OH]D concentration was not associated with spherical equivalent or myopia after adjustment for confounding factors (beta = -0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.03 to - 0.008, P = 0.25, and odds ratio = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.05, P = 0.12, respectively). When participants were classified into 25[OH]D groups of lower (= 50 to = 75 nmol/L), the upper group had slightly greater myopic refractive error than the medium group (P = 0.02) but not the lower group, after adjustment for confounders.Conclusions: There was no substantial association between 25[OH]D levels and spherical equivalent or odds of myopia in this study. The association previously noted between low serum 25[OH]D level and myopia in younger Western Australians is not evident in later adulthood.Translational Relevance: This study provides further evidence suggesting that vitamin D levels are unrelated to myopia risk in adults and thus not a suitable target for myopia intervention.

KW - myopia

KW - refractive error

KW - vitamin D

KW - adult

KW - 25-hydroxyvitamin D

KW - VITAMIN-D STATUS

KW - TIME SPENT OUTDOORS

KW - MYOPIA

KW - EXPOSURE

KW - PREVALENCE

KW - RELIABILITY

KW - PROGRESSION

KW - RADIATION

KW - TRACKING

KW - CHILDREN

U2 - 10.1167/tvst.8.1.13

DO - 10.1167/tvst.8.1.13

M3 - Article

VL - 8

JO - Translational Vision Science and Technology

JF - Translational Vision Science and Technology

SN - 2164-2591

IS - 1

M1 - 13

ER -