Purpose: To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration and refractive error in a community-based cohort of adults aged 46 to 69 years.
Methods: Residents of the City of Busselton in Western Australia born between 1946 and 1964 were invited to participate. Participants underwent cycloplegic autore-fraction and completed questionnaires on education, occupational sun exposure, and physical activity. Blood samples were collected and serum frozen at -80 degrees C. Serum 25[OH]D concentration was measured by immunoassay. Data on 25[OH]D were deseasonalized and multivariate models built to analyze the association between 25[OH]D concentration and spherical equivalent and myopia, defined as spherical equivalent <-0.50 D.
Results: After exclusions, data were available for 4112 participants. Serum 25[OH]D concentration was not associated with spherical equivalent or myopia after adjustment for confounding factors (beta = -0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.03 to - 0.008, P = 0.25, and odds ratio = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.05, P = 0.12, respectively). When participants were classified into 25[OH]D groups of lower (= 50 to = 75 nmol/L), the upper group had slightly greater myopic refractive error than the medium group (P = 0.02) but not the lower group, after adjustment for confounders.
Conclusions: There was no substantial association between 25[OH]D levels and spherical equivalent or odds of myopia in this study. The association previously noted between low serum 25[OH]D level and myopia in younger Western Australians is not evident in later adulthood.
Translational Relevance: This study provides further evidence suggesting that vitamin D levels are unrelated to myopia risk in adults and thus not a suitable target for myopia intervention.