Background: Population ageing will increase the burden of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) and fractured neck of femur (FNF). These age-dependent conditions are associated with increased mortality, although the pattern and extent of this increased mortality is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to compare mortality from stroke, MI and FNF.Methods: Retrospective inception cohort study of 2818 subjects more than the age of 60 years in Western Australia recorded in a linked database as having sustained a stroke, MI or FNF in the year 1990.Results: Early adjusted mortality rates associated with FNF were relatively low compared with stroke and MI. Medium-term to longer-term mortality associated with FNF was greater than MI, but stroke was associated with the highest long-term adjusted mortality.Conclusion: The poorer medium-term to longer-term survival following stroke and FNF (relative to that following MI) may relate to a greater burden of comorbidity. Stroke and FNF may thus be markers of medical frailty.