Long-term Liver-related Outcomes of Patients With Chronic Liver Diseases in Australia

Yi Huang, John Joseph, W. Bastiaan de Boer, Wendy Cheng, Leon A. Adams, Gerry MacQuillan, George Garas, Spiro Raftopoulos, Gary P. Jeffrey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Background & Aims: Chronic liver disease is a major health burden that produces significant liver-related morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate liver-related outcomes of patients with different causes of chronic liver disease in Australia. Methods: We collected data from 10,933 patients with chronic liver disease assessed by Hepascore (a serum fibrosis model) in Western Australia from 2004 through 2015. We obtained records of liver-related death, transplantation, decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma from WA Data Linkage Unit databases. Competing risk analysis was used to calculate the cumulative risk of each clinical endpoint, and risks for clinical endpoints were compared among all causes of chronic liver disease. Results: In our final cohort for analysis, 5566 patients had hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, 1989 had HBV infection, 119 were infected with HBV and HCV, 955 had alcohol-associated liver disease, 1597 had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), 123 had alcohol-associated liver disease and metabolic risk factors, 561 had autoimmune liver disease without overlap syndrome, and 23 autoimmune overlap syndrome. Significant differences among chronic liver diseases were observed in risk of all-cause death (P <.001), liver-related death (P <.001), liver transplantation (P <.001), and decompensation (P <.001) but not hepatocellular carcinoma (P=.095). Patients with alcohol-associated liver disease had the highest 5-year cumulative risk of liver-related death (17.1%) and the second-highest 5-year cumulative risk of decompensation (29.2%). Multivariate analysis found patients with alcohol-associated liver disease had significantly higher risks of liver-related death and decompensation than patients with HCV infection with hazard ratios (HRs) of 2.39 (95% CI, 1.88–3.03) and 3.42 (95% CI, 2.74–4.27), respectively. Patients with NAFLD had a significantly lower risk of liver related death and decompensation than patients with HCV infection, with HRs of 0.67 (95% CI, 0.48–0.95) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.52–0.94) respectively. Conclusions: In an analysis of patients in Western Australia, we found patients with alcohol-associated liver disease to have significantly higher risk of decompensation and liver-related death than patients with HCV infection, whereas patients with NAFLD have significantly lower risks of either outcome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)496-504.e3
JournalClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020


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