Long-term hematologic toxicity of 177Lu-octreotate-capecitabine-temozolomide therapy of GEPNET

Murali Kesavan, Piyush Grover, Wei Sen Lam, Phillip G. Claringbold, J. Harvey Turner

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15 Citations (Scopus)


Thirty-seven patients with advanced gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEPNETs) were treated on a prospective phase II single-center study with four cycles of 7.8 GBq 177Lu-octreotate combined with capecitabine and temozolomide chemotherapy (CAPTEM). Each 8-week cycle combined radiopeptide therapy with 14 days of capecitabine (1500 mg/m2) and 5 days of temozolomide (200 mg/m2). The incidence of grade ≥ 3 hematologic toxicity was analyzed. At a median follow-up of 7-years (range 1-10), six (16%) patients developed persistent hematologic toxicity (PHT) (defined as sustained grade ≥ 3 hematologic toxicity beyond 36-months follow-up) and three (8%) developed MDS/AL with a median time-to-event of 46 and 34 months, respectively. The estimated cumulative incidence of MDS/AL was 11% (95% CI: 3.45-24.01). Development of PHT was the only significant risk factor for secondary MDS/AL (RR, 16; 95% CI: 2.53 to 99.55; P < 0.001). The median PFS was 48 months (95% CI: 40.80-55.20), and the median OS was 86 months (95% CI: 56.90-115.13). Twenty-one deaths were recorded, including 13 (62%) due to progressive disease and all 3 (14%) patients with MDS/AL. 177Lu-octreotate CAPTEM therapy for GEPNETs is associated with a risk of long-term hematologic toxicity. The rising cumulative incidence of MDS/AL > 10% mandates the long-term monitoring of treated patients. However, time to onset is unpredictable, and incidence does not correlate with conventional baseline risk factors. Novel methods are required for the stratification of prospective patients based on genetic risk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)521-527
Number of pages7
JournalEndocrine-Related Cancer
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


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