Simon Chang from the Central University of Finance and Economics, Belton Fleisher from Ohio State University, Central University of Finance and Economics, and IZA, Seonghoon Kim, Singapore Management University, and Shi-Yung-Liu from Academia Sinica explore the long-term health effects of malaria exposure around birth in Colonial Taiwan. In the early stage of the Japanese ruling period (1895 1945), malaria was not only rampant but also deadly in Taiwan. To fight against malaria, the Japanese colonial government initiated an island-wide eradication campaign in 1911, which lasted until the eruption of World War II. So-called antimalaria districts were gradually set up throughout the whole island. At the beginning, malaria distribution varied considerably from the north to the south. The authors found that the health shocks occurring in the critical period when our organs are developing could leave a long-term impact on health outcomes in adult life.