Red blood cell (RBC) membrane-cloaked nanoparticles, reserving the intact cell membrane structure and membrane protein, can gain excellent cell-specific functions such as long blood circulation and immune escape, providing a promising therapy nanoplatform for drug delivery. Herein, a novel RBC membrane biomimetic combination therapeutic system with tumor targeting ability is constructed by embedding bovine serum albumin (BSA) encapsulated with 1,2-diaminocyclohexane-platinum (II) (DACHPt) and indocyanine green (ICG) in the targeting peptide-modified erythrocyte membrane (R-RBC@BPtI) for enhancing tumor internalization and synergetic chemophototherapy. R-RBC@BPtI displays excellent stability and high encapsulation efficiency with multiple cores enveloped in the membrane. Benefited from the stealth functionality and targeting modification of erythrocyte membranes, R-RBC@BPtI can significantly promote tumor targeting and cellular uptake. Under the near-infrared laser stimuli, R-RBC@BPtI presents remarkable instability by singlet oxygen and heat-mediated cleavage so as to trigger effective drug release, thereby achieving deep penetration and accumulation of DACHPt and ROS in the tumor site. Consequently, R-RBC@BPtI with tumor-specific targeting ability accomplishes remarkable ablation of tumors and suppressed lung metastasis in vivo by photothermal and chemotherapy combined ablation under phototriggering. This research provides a novel strategy of targeted biomimetic nanoplatforms for combined cancer chemotherapy–phototherapy.