Lead in soils: sources, bioavailability, plant uptake, and remediation

Prashant Srivastava, Nanthi Bolan, Verônica Casagrande, Joshua Benjamin, Sifau A. Adejumo, Muhammad Sabir, Zia Ur Rahman Farooqi, Saifullah, Abhijit Sarkar

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference paperChapterpeer-review

Abstract

Lead (Pb) is a persistent toxic element with no beneficial properties for living beings. Apart from geogenic sources, anthropogenic activities like mining, smelting, paints, Pb-acid battery industries, municipal and industrial dumps and wastewaters, vehicular exhaust, and household dust are responsible for its contamination in soil. Pb bioavailability in soil depends on Pb concentration in the soil, soil type, pH, soil organic matter, Fe- and Mn-oxides, soil flora and fauna, and soil water content. Pb uptake by plants is determined by external/environmental factors, such as soil pH, organic matter and clay contents, and internal/plant factors, such as plant species, plant growth stage, plant root system, production of root exudates, plant metabolites, and transporters. Remediation of Pb-contaminated soils involves in-situ and ex-situ approaches, including physical, chemical, and biological techniques. Physical remediation includes soil replacement, excavation, solidification, vitrification, subsurface barriers, washing and flushing, containment, and thermal treatment. Chemical stabilization, soil washing, and electrokinetics are examples of chemical remediation methods for Pb-contaminated soils. Bioremediation involves processes such as biosorption, bioleaching, and biomembranes using microbes (bacteria, fungi, and algae), plants, or a mix thereof.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAppraisal of Metal(loids) in the Ecosystem
EditorsVinod Kumar, Anket Sharma, Raj Setia
PublisherElsevier Doyma
Chapter14
Pages331-360
Number of pages30
ISBN (Electronic)9780323856218
ISBN (Print)9780323885508
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Aug 2022

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