Large clostridial toxin-negative, binary toxin-producing Clostridium difficile

Grace Androga

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis

202 Downloads (Pure)


Clostridium difficile is a multi-host, anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus that evolved from one of the oldest groups of environmental bacteria. Over recent decades, C. difficile infection has risen in frequency to become a global public health threat as a cause of diarrhea mediated by large clostridial toxins (LCT) A and B. The objective of research reported in this thesis was to characterize LCT-negative, binary toxin-producing (A-B-CDT+) strains of C. difficule. These strains have been detected in patients with severe diarrhea and are highly prevalent in food animals and the environment throughout the world.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Western Australia
  • Riley, Thomas, Supervisor
  • Foster, Niki, Supervisor
  • Chang, Barbara, Supervisor
Thesis sponsors
Award date28 Jan 2020
Publication statusUnpublished - 2020


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